Since December 2019, Wuhan City, Hubei Province has continuously carried out influenza and related disease surveillance, and found many cases of viral pneumonia, all diagnosed as viral pneumonia / pulmonary infection. 11 February 2020, the World Health Organization officially named it :2019 Coronavirus Disease, abbreviated COVID-19(Corona Virus Disease 2019).
1. How to judge novel coronavirus-caused pneumonia?
The main clinical picture of pneumonia patients with novel coronavirus infection were fever, fatigue, nausea, respiratory symptoms mainly dry cough, and gradually dyspnea, and severe patients presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Some patients with mild onset symptoms, but no fever. The symptom of most patients are mild , the prognosis is good, a few patients are seriously ill, or even die. No evidence shows that any medicine can stop Coronavirus. Doctors and nurses who work at the front line and are the main force to defend the virus must put on masks, gloves, goggles and protective coveralls in their daily work.
Hou Jinlin, Director of Infection Department, Nanfang Hospital,Southern Medical University, in China,said the possibility of contracting novel coronavirus pneumonia could be preliminarily judged from three angles.
- First of all, a history of close contact. Have you ever been exposed to fever or respiratory symptoms in high incidence areas; Have you had a history of exposure to novel coronavirus infections?
- Second, symptom. The main clinical picture of pneumonia with coronavirus infection is fever, fatigue, nausea, respiratory symptoms mainly dry cough, respiratory secretions will not be too much, a few patients with chills, nasal congestion, a runny nose, diarrhea, conjunctival congestion and other symptoms. Most severe cases develop dyspnea after a week.
- Third, (body) temperature. If the body temperature is abnormal, first, go to the community hospital to check, and continue to check the dynamic changes of body temperature. If it gets worse,It is possible to go to a designated hospital for further examination. Mild rise of body temperature, no other symptoms can be observed at home
Wear mask and body temperature checking
2. Key point：How Should Individual Prevent Infection Novel Coronavirus?
According to experts from CDC and WHO, public prevention should pay attention to the following four aspects:
- Strengthening personal protection:Avoid going to crowded places, washing hands frequently, not spitting, coughing or sneezing with tissues or elbows to cover mouth and nose; strengthen exercise, regular work and rest.
personal protection methods
- Avoiding exposure to wild livestock: Avoid close contact with farmed or wildlife without protection; avoid contact between sick animals and spoiled meat; avoid contact with stray animals and waste water in the fresh market. When you have to go, be protected.
No food with wild animals
- Refusing to get sick to work and party: If there are symptoms of respiratory tract infection such as fever and cough, please rest at home and reduce going out.
- Seeking medical attention in time: Travel back from affected areas, If the symptoms of respiratory tract infection such as fever and cough appear, we should choose the fever clinic to seek medical treatment according to the condition, and take a mask to see a doctor, at the same time inform the doctor similar patient or animal contact history, travel history and so on.
3. Notes for daily life
Don't talk to external personnel too close.
When you have to talk, keep a distance of more than 1 meter.The main route of transmission of the novel coronavirus is the respiratory tract. The main routes of human-to-human transmission are droplet transmission and aerogel. We can wear masks to isolate the droplets, but this effect is not 100% useful. It also related to distance. The longer the distance, the lower the probability of infection. Of course, if an infected person wears a mask, it can greatly reduce the probability of transmission to others, which is also the main reason why Chinese government requires everyone to wear a mask in public places.
Keep a distance from others
Minimize exposure to public goods.
The virus can survive outside the human body, depending on the environment, the survival time varies from 30 minutes to several days. Therefore, this virus can be transmitted through contact. For example, if there is a virus on a door handle, if you touch it with your hands, it will stick to your hands. At this time, if you rub your eyes or dig your nostrils, you may be infected. Therefore, we should minimize contact with public items, such as coins, elevator buttons, taxi door handles, microphones, etc. If contact is required, we should immediately wash our hands or disinfect them with tissues Similarly, changing clothes, shampooing, and bathing immediately after arriving home is also very useful.
Try to stay away from people who are in contact with too many people.
The professor of Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Union Medical College Hospital made it clear that the new coronavirus is not only infectious in the early stage and incubation period, but also that people with mild or recessive infection are also highly infectious. First of all, in close contact with patients who have been diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia, these personnel include his family, doctors, and staff involved in isolation; second, large-scale contact with floating populations has a high risk of infection, such as the security guards, village heads, and village party secretaries, which are propagated from house to house, have taken protective measures, but because they have to contact a large number of people, the risks are far higher than ordinary people. Isolate the sick and quarantine their contacts. In addition, measures that increase social distancing such as cancelling sporting events may help to reduce transmission. These measures, of course, should be based on local context and risk assessment, and should be time-limited.
Innovate and learn.
This is a new virus and a new situation. We’re all learning, and we must all find new ways to prevent infections, save lives, and minimize impact. All countries have lessons to share.
4. The protection and prevention for individual purpose:
(1) Minimizing outdoor activities
Avoid going to regions where the disease is raging. It is recommended to avoid visiting relatives and friends and gathering during the pandemic period and try to stay at home. Reduce outdoor activities in crowded public places, especially in the areas with poor air ventilation.
(2) Conducting individual protection and keeping hands clean
Wear a mask when you go out. Wear medical surgical or N95 masks when you go out to public places, to seek medical treatment or take public transportation. Keep your hands clean at all times, and reduce contacts with public objects.
(3) Taking health monitoring and medical treatment
Actively monitor the health monitoring of individuals and family members, and take the initiative to have body temperature when you feel feverish. If you show suspected symptoms, you should wear a mask yourself and go to the nearest hospital in time. When visiting a doctor, you should tell the doctor about your travel record and residence history in the epidemic areas, and who you have been in contact with after the onset of the disease, and assist with the doctor to carry out relevant investigations.
(4) Maintaining good hygiene and healthy habits
The room should be opened frequently for ventilation. Do not share towels among family members, keep home environment and tableware clean, and dry clothes frequently in air. Don't spit everywhere, wrap your mouth and nose secretions well with paper towels, and dispose of those paper towels in a litter bin with a lid. Pay attention to nutrition intake and do exercises moderately.
(5) Do not touch, buy and eat any wild animals. Try to avoid going to markets that sell live animals.
(6) Individuals should prepare thermometers, medical surgical or N95 masks, household disinfection items in the family.
5. The protection and prevention when families show suspected symptoms:
(1) If suspected COVID-19 symptoms occur, the families should have medical treatment in time according to the conditions.
(2) Avoid taking public transportation such as subway and bus, and avoid going to crowded places.
(3) When visiting a doctor, you should tell the doctor about your travel record and residence history of the epidemic areas, and report about who you have been in contact with after having the disease, and assist with the doctor to carry out relevant investigations.
(4) The family members of the COVID-19 patient should wear masks, and the patient should keep distance from other asymptomatic family members to avoid close contact.
(5) If one family member is confirmed with COVID-19, other family members who have been determined to be in close contact with the patient should have medical observation within 14 days.
(6) Sterilize places and objects frequently contacted by the confirmed COVID-19 family member.
- Disposal of contaminants: When cleaning and disposing of table or other surfaces contacted by the patient, clothes and secretions of the patient, the used gloves, paper towels, masks and other wastes should be placed in room-specific garbage bags that are marked as contaminants before discarding.
- Do not share any items that could lead to indirect contact infections. The tableware must be washed and disinfected before reusing.
(7) Those with suspected COVID-19 symptoms should live in a single room with good ventilation and refuse any visit from others. They should reduce the activities outside the room, limit the living space, and ensure that shared spaces (such as kitchens and bathrooms) are well ventilated (keep windows open continuously).
6. The protection and prevention for public places
(1) The workers in public places shall conduct health monitoring by themselves, and shall not go to work when infected with the COVID-19.
(2) If the person with suspected COVID-19 symptoms is identified, the working staff in public places should ask him or her to leave.
(3) Visitor management. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the staff on duty in office buildings and other places should strengthen the monitoring and registration of visitors.
(4) Public objects and public contacted items shall be cleaned and disinfected regularly.
(5) Maintain air circulation in public places. Ensure the normal operation of air-conditioning systems or vents, clean the air-conditioning filters regularly, and open the windows for ventilation more often.
(6) The toilet should be equipped with sufficient hand washing liquids, and ensure the normal operation of water supply facilities such astaps.
(7) Keep the environment and hygiene clean, and clean up the rubbish in time.
(8) In the regions where the disease is raging, people should try to reduce the trips to public places, especially to avoid going to places with dense crowds and poor air circulation.
(9) Set up emergency zones. It is recommended to set up emergency zones in public places. When there are suspected or confirmed cases, they should be kept in temporary quarantine in these zones and treated according to the related requirements.
(10) Health publicity and education. Carry out health publicity and education activities related to the COVID-19 prevention and control in a prominent area of the public places by means of video scrolling or pictureposters.
Proofreader: Wang Qianqian Zhang Nana
Translator:Chang GengyuanZhang XiaominWu ChanyuLu QianqianLi Sirui
Compiler of Chinese materials:He YipuDing Jiahua
More articles you may be interested in
Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 This article is going to tell several clinical classifications of COVID-19, and also heavy and critical clinical warning indicators of covid-19, here main focus on adult and children’s situation.
Signs and Symptoms of COVID-19 This article is gong to introduce the signs and symptoms of covid-19, so that people can make a initiatory judgement whether they are infected with covid-19.
Several transmission routes of COVID-19 With the outbreak of the epidemic of COVID-19, people worldwide pay much attention to it. China has got the first big achievements of this war, and also experienced in fighting against the disease. This article is going to introduce several transmission routes of COVID-19 to help people fight against and prevent from the epidemic.